The Internet Formed in the 1960s—How Did It Start?


Universities and research institutions initially used e-mail for communication within their networks. Since this proved practical, programmers began working on a way to deliver e-mails outside those networks. While the internet grew, e-mail became a big part of communication. It wasn’t until the 1990s that e-mail became more widely adopted as internet service providers offered e-mail service at no cost.

TCP/IP Enters the Fray

Eventually, computers at the University of California and the University of Utah joined the network. The 1970s saw additional universities, research centers, and government institutions involved with the ARPANET project.

By 1974, the technology had evolved thanks to a proposal to connect similar networks, and software engineers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn contributed to the effort. Both invented the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), a standard communication model designed to send data across networks.

When January 1, 1983, rolled around, ARPANET started using TCP/IP, and engineers worked on the “network of networks” that transformed into the modern internet. TCP/IP offered more flexibility, better security, interoperability, scalability, and versatility. All of those factors made it the go-to protocol, replacing NCP for improved communication.

However, switching from NCP to TCP/IP didn’t happen instantaneously. That’s because the network architecture required updates. In the meantime, protocol gateways, known as translators, allowed NCP-based computers to send messages with TCP/IP-based ones.

The First PC Modem, NSF Funding, and DNS

In 1977, the internet world experienced a transitional moment with the first-ever PC modem called the Hayes 80-103A, invented by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington. Phasing out ARPANET began in the 1980s when its objectives were met. All of the leftover networks served as precursors of today’s internet. 

The National Science Foundation funded the Internet in the 1980s rather than the U.S. military. During that time, the NSF invested in long-distance networks, which operated as the internet’s foundation from 1981 to 1994. Then, the private sector took over the internet foundation.

In 1984, the Domain Name System (DNS) was introduced as a crucial part of the internet. It translated domain names into human-readable IP addresses, replacing the Hosts.txt file system. That way, users can type in the website address rather than remember its numerical address.

IP addresses, developed as part of this protocol, are a string of characters assigned to a device connected to the network (Fig. 3). Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) became the standard in 1981, which led to IP address adoption when the Internet grew.



Source link

Leave a comment